[140], A sajal was ranked below the ajaw, and indicated a subservient lord. In the Early Classic, an ajaw was the ruler of a city. [217] A quantity of extremely fine ceramic figurines have been excavated from Late Classic tombs on Jaina Island, in northern Yucatán. E cebolinha também? Maya Maia é cantora, compositora e criadora de conteúdo. This period saw the Maya civilization develop many city-states linked by a complex trade network. [274] The Chenes style is most commonly encountered in the southern portion of the Yucatán Peninsula, although individual buildings in the style can be found elsewhere in the peninsula. During the Classic period, the Maya ruler was the high priest, and the direct conduit between mortals and the gods. Carmack 2001, pp. [394], "Ancient Maya" redirects here. [134] The lakam was only found in larger sites, and they appear to have been responsible for the taxation of local districts. [89], In 1511, a Spanish caravel was wrecked in the Caribbean, and about a dozen survivors made landfall on the coast of Yucatán. [116][117], The city will continue to be inspected and scanned by archaeologists under thick forest canopy using LIDAR technology (light detection and range) in June 2020. Such false towers are only found in the Río Bec region. The Maya civilization developed highly sophisticated artforms, and the Maya created art using both perishable and non-perishable materials, including wood, jade, obsidian, ceramics, sculpted stone monuments, stucco, and finely painted murals. D'Arcy Harrison 2003, p. 114. 1070 1070. On the first day of May, the Lares Praestites were honored as protectors of the city,[18] and the flamen of Vulcan sacrificed a pregnant sow to Maia, a customary offering to an earth goddess[19] that reiterates the link between Vulcan and Maia in the archaic prayer formula. [376] Although the cult of Kukulkan had its origins in these earlier Maya traditions, the worship of Kukulkan was heavily influenced by the Quetzalcoatl cult of central Mexico. Caso Barrera and Aliphat Fernández 2006, pp. [318] The earliest explicit use of zero occurred on monuments dated to 357 AD. Demarest 2004, p. 218. Schele and Mathews 1999, p. 297. Across a broad swathe of the Maya area, limestone was immediately available. Maya communities and the nuclear family maintained their traditional day-to-day life. Maya warriors wore body armour in the form of quilted cotton that had been soaked in salt water to toughen it; the resulting armour compared favourably to the steel armour worn by the Spanish when they conquered the region. Each deity had four manifestations, associated with the cardinal directions, each identified with a different colour. Sharer and Traxler 2006, p. 340. 1281–83. [43] By approximately 400 BC, early Maya rulers were raising stelae. [108] By the early 20th century, the Peabody Museum was sponsoring excavations at Copán and in the Yucatán Peninsula. The Postclassic period saw the rise of Chichen Itza in the north, and the expansion of the aggressive Kʼicheʼ kingdom in the Guatemalan Highlands. [83] The once-great city of Kaminaljuyu in the Valley of Guatemala was abandoned after continuous occupation of almost 2,000 years. The first Maya cities developed around 750 BC, and by 500 BC these cities possessed monumental architecture, including large temples with elaborate stucco façades. [53] This period marked the peak of large-scale construction and urbanism, the recording of monumental inscriptions, and demonstrated significant intellectual and artistic development, particularly in the southern lowland regions. [387], There are hundreds of Maya sites spread across five countries: Belize, El Salvador, Guatemala, Honduras and Mexico. [235] Throughout Maya history, common huts and some temples continued to be built from wooden poles and thatch. [153], The atlatl (spear-thrower) was introduced to the Maya region by Teotihuacan in the Early Classic. [20] These groups diverged further during the pre-Columbian era to form over 30 languages that have survived into modern times. [221], One poorly studied area of Maya folk art is graffiti. Small sections of a main sign could be used to represent the whole main sign, and Maya scribes were highly inventive in their usage and adaptation of glyph elements. After giving birth to the baby, Maia wrapped him in blankets and went to sleep. The highlands extend northwards into Verapaz, and gradually descend to the east. Her name is related to μαῖα (maia), an honorific term for older women related to μήτηρ (mētēr) 'mother',[citation needed] also meaning "midwife" in Greek. In the Classic period, such trophy heads no longer appeared on the king's belt, but Classic period kings are frequently depicted standing over humiliated war captives. [227] Elite residential complexes occupied the best land around the city centre, while commoners had their residences dispersed further away from the ceremonial centre. Matthew 2012, pp. Maya inscriptions from the Classic show that a defeated king could be captured, tortured, and sacrificed. 192–93. MAYA MAIA. The Maya elite were literate, and developed a complex system of hieroglyphic writing that was the most advanced in the pre-Columbian Americas. [30] Modern scholars regard these periods as arbitrary divisions of Maya chronology, rather than indicative of cultural evolution or decline. It is not known if all members of the aristocracy could read and write, although at least some women could, since there are representations of female scribes in Maya art. Miller 1999, pp. [88] The Kʼicheʼ had carved out a small empire covering a large part of the western Guatemalan Highlands and the neighbouring Pacific coastal plain. 144–45. [355] The Maya priesthood was a closed group, drawing its members from the established elite; by the Early Classic they were recording increasingly complex ritual information in their hieroglyphic books, including astronomical observations, calendrical cycles, history and mythology. [236], These complexes were usually located in the site core, beside a principal plaza. [303] By the end of the 20th century, scholars were able to read the majority of Maya texts, and ongoing work continues to further illuminate the content. These are known as the Madrid Codex, the Dresden Codex and the Paris Codex. [1]Biografia. The temple shrines contained between one and three rooms, and were dedicated to important deities. Justeson 2010, p. 46. [38] This period was characterised by sedentary communities and the introduction of pottery and fired clay figurines. The enthronement of a new king was a highly elaborate ceremony, involving a series of separate acts that included enthronement upon a jaguar-skin cushion, human sacrifice, and receiving the symbols of royal power, such as a headband bearing a jade representation of the so-called "jester god", an elaborate headdress adorned with quetzal feathers, and a sceptre representing the god Kʼawiil. Graffiti was often inscribed haphazardly, with drawings overlapping each other, and display a mix of crude, untrained art, and examples by artists who were familiar with Classic-period artistic conventions. Rivalry between different factions would have led to dynamic political institutions as compromises and disagreements were played out. [310] The Popul Vuh recounts the mythical creation of the world, the legend of the Hero Twins, and the history of the Postclassic Kʼicheʼ kingdom. [175], The Maya engaged in long distance trade across the Maya region, and across greater Mesoamerica and beyond. [330], The 260-day tzolkʼin provided the basic cycle of Maya ceremony, and the foundations of Maya prophecy. As an illustration, an Early Classic Maya merchant quarter has been identified at the distant metropolis of Teotihuacan, in central Mexico. Carter 2014 "A single passage on a Late Classic hieroglyphic panel at Palenque makes two further points clear; first, that the count of bakʼtuns will accumulate to 19, as before the present era, before the number in the piktuns place will change; and second, that that number will change to 1, not to 14, just as the bakʼtuns did in 2720 BC. Maïa — Maia Cette page d’homonymie répertorie les différents sujets et articles partageant un même nom. Aries Actress #22. Maia é um rastreador de período (calendário de ciclo menstrual) fácil e divertido de usar. Sharer and Traxler 2006, p. 98. [347], In common with the rest of Mesoamerica, the Maya believed in a supernatural realm inhabited by an array of powerful deities who needed to be placated with ceremonial offerings and ritual practices. As Maya society developed, and the elite became more powerful, Maya royalty developed their household shrines into the great pyramids that held the tombs of their ancestors. Mesoamericans viewed the world as hostile and governed by unpredictable deities. Saturno, Stuart and Beltrán 2006, p. 1282. Maia I Hurt, age 66, Stafford, VA 22554 View Full Report. [278] The language of almost all Classic Maya texts over the entire Maya area has been identified as Chʼolan;[279] Late Preclassic text from Kaminaljuyu, in the highlands, also appears to be in, or related to, Chʼolan. [150] The range of commoners was broad; it consisted of everyone not of noble birth, and therefore included everyone from the poorest farmers to wealthy craftsmen and commoners appointed to bureaucratic positions. [331] The wayeb was considered to be a dangerous time, when the barriers between the mortal and supernatural realms were broken, allowing malignant deities to cross over and interfere in human concerns. It is almost exclusively concerned with the Maya elite and their world. The Thundermans. Hieroglyphic writing was being used in the Maya region by the 3rd century BC. [167] The Contact period Maya also used two-handed swords crafted from strong wood with the blade fashioned from inset obsidian,[171] similar to the Aztec macuahuitl. Maya pottery was not glazed, although it often had a fine finish produced by burnishing. In addition to basic foodstuffs, the Maya also cultivated prestige crops such as cotton, cacao and vanilla. [264] The lateral platforms often supported structures that may have held privileged spectators. [370] It is one of the most outstanding works of indigenous literature in the Americas. [173] The Maya were major producers of cotton, which was used to make the textiles to be traded throughout Mesoamerica. Christenson 2007, pp. [259] The triple-temple form of the triadic pyramid appears to be related to Maya mythology. When merchants travelled, they painted themselves black, like their patron gods, and went heavily armed. ⊗ HOM. The priestly interpretation of astronomical records and books was therefore crucial, since the priest would understand which deity required ritual propitiation, when the correct ceremonies should be performed, and what would be an appropriate offering. Little is known about Maya military organization, logistics, or training. [230], The ceremonial centre of the Maya city was where the ruling elite lived, and where the administrative functions of the city were performed, together with religious ceremonies. [195] The Maya nobility practised dental modification, and some lords wore encrusted jade in their teeth. [23] To the south the plain gradually rises towards the Guatemalan Highlands. Kingship was patrilineal, and power would normally pass to the eldest son. [156] Although present in the Maya region during the Classic period, its use as a weapon of war was not favoured;[170] it did not become a common weapon until the Postclassic. The block is composed of one or more individual glyphs attached to each other to form the glyph block, with individual glyph blocks generally being separated by a space. In some cases, the Maya calculations were more accurate than equivalent calculations in the Old World; for example, the Maya solar year was calculated to greater accuracy than the Julian year. [351] Maya ritual included the use of hallucinogens for chilan, oracular priests. The principal architecture of the city consisted of palaces, pyramid-temples, ceremonial ballcourts, and structures aligned for astronomical observation. 764–65. Houston, Robertson and Stuart 2000, p. 338. [155] Unfortunately, the inscriptions do not provide information upon the causes of war, or the form it took. It is estimated that a large elite residence at Copán required an estimated 10,686 man-days to build, which compares to 67-man-days for a commoner's hut. Early Maya script had appeared on the Pacific coast of Guatemala by the late 1st century AD, or early 2nd century. One important, though incomplete, resource is physical evidence, such as dedicatory caches and other ritual deposits, shrines, and burials with their associated funerary offerings. Large palaces, such as at Palenque, could be fitted with a water supply, and sweat baths were often found within the complex, or nearby. [41] Nakbe in the Petén department of Guatemala is the earliest well-documented city in the Maya lowlands,[42] where large structures have been dated to around 750 BC. [268], Before 2000 BC, the Maya spoke a single language, dubbed proto-Mayan by linguists. [105] In 1839, American traveller and writer John Lloyd Stephens set out to visit a number of Maya sites with English architect and draftsman Frederick Catherwood. In the 16th century, the Spanish Empire colonised the Mesoamerican region, and a lengthy series of campaigns saw the fall of Nojpetén, the last Maya city, in 1697. [65], In the southeast, Copán was the most important city. [245] E-Groups were raised across the central and southern Maya area for over a millennium; not all were properly aligned as observatories, and their function may have been symbolic. Originally, she may have been a homonym independent of the Greek Maia, whose myths she absorbed through the Hellenization of Latin literature and culture. [224] It is further estimated that 65% of the labour required to build the noble residence was used in the quarrying, transporting, and finishing of the stone used in construction, and 24% of the labour was required for the manufacture and application of limestone-based plaster. 305 likes. [256] Examples of the triadic form are even known from Dzibilchaltun in the far north of the Yucatán Peninsula, and Qʼumarkaj in the Highlands of Guatemala. [280] The use of Chʼolan as the language of Maya text does not necessarily indicate that it was the language commonly used by the local populace – it may have been equivalent to Medieval Latin as a ritual or prestige language. Guillemín 1965, p. 9. [86] Even without a dominant regional capital, the early Spanish explorers reported wealthy coastal cities and thriving marketplaces. Ho Ho Holiday Special. [180] The travelling of merchants into dangerous foreign territory was likened to a passage through the underworld; the patron deities of merchants were two underworld gods carrying backpacks. The new king had strong ties with central Petén and Teotihuacan. Mesoamerican trade routes shifted and bypassed Petén. Maia also raised the infant Arcas, the child of Callisto with Zeus. [122], The Maya political landscape was highly complex and Maya elites engaged in political intrigue to gain economic and social advantage over neighbours. The Maya did not employ a functional wheel, so all loads were transported on litters, barges, or rolled on logs. [4] They were born on Mount Cyllene in Arcadia,[5] and are sometimes called mountain nymphs, oreads; Simonides of Ceos sang of "mountain Maia" (Maiados oureias) "of the lovely black eyes. The first reliably evidenced polities formed in the Maya lowlands in the 9th century BC. [347] Sight-lines through the windows of the Caracol building at Chichen Itza align with the northernmost and southernmost extremes of Venus' path. [268] One of the finest examples of Central Petén style architecture is Tikal Temple I. [311] Scribal activity is identifiable in the archaeological record; Jasaw Chan Kʼawiil I, king of Tikal, was interred with his paint pot. [332] Additionally, there may have been some regional variation in how these exceptional cycles were managed. [252] The triadic form was the predominant architectural form in the Petén region during the Late Preclassic. [84] One of the most important cities in the Guatemalan Highlands at this time was Qʼumarkaj, the capital of the aggressive Kʼicheʼ kingdom. [275], The Usumacinta style developed in the hilly terrain of the Usumacinta drainage. 79, 83. [61] Tikal and Calakmul engaged in the manoeuvering of their alliance networks against each other. [154], Warfare was prevalent in the Maya world. Temples were raised on platforms, most often upon a pyramid. Some doorways were surrounded by mosaic masks of monsters representing mountain or sky deities, identifying the doorways as entrances to the supernatural realm. [277] Linguistic analysis of reconstructed Proto-Mayan vocabulary suggests that the original Proto-Mayan homeland was in the western or northern Guatemalan Highlands, although the evidence is not conclusive. The motifs also included geometric patterns, lattices and spools, possibly influenced by styles from highland Oaxaca, outside the Maya area. [121] Within a polity, mid-ranking population centres would have played a key role in managing resources and internal conflict. Fuente, Staines Cicero and Arellano Hernández 1999, p. 150. [378], The ancient Maya had diverse and sophisticated methods of food production. [181] A substantial Maya trading canoe was encountered off Honduras on Christopher Columbus's fourth voyage. If a monument or artefact has more than one inscription, column labels are not repeated, rather they continue in the alphabetic series; if there are more than 26 columns, the labelling continues as A', B', etc. [293], The Maya writing system (often called hieroglyphs from a superficial resemblance to Ancient Egyptian writing)[294] is a logosyllabic writing system, combining a syllabary of phonetic signs representing syllables with logogram representing entire words. [362], The Maya world was populated by a great variety of deities, supernatural entities and sacred forces. [77] Both the capitals and their secondary centres were generally abandoned within a period of 50 to 100 years. Foias 2014, p. 14. Sharer and Traxler 2006, p. 342. [68] The captured lord of Copán was taken back to Quiriguá and was decapitated in a public ritual. [210] They were technically very challenging to produce,[211] requiring considerable skill on the part of the artisan. [269] Examples of sites in the Central Petén style include Altun Ha, Calakmul, Holmul, Ixkun, Nakum, Naranjo, and Yaxhá. The principal sites in the Puuc region, after Uxmal, are Kabah, Labna, and Sayil. [14] Her identity became theologically intertwined also with the goddesses Fauna, Ops, Juno, Carna, and the Magna Mater ("Great Goddess", referring to the Roman form of Cybele but also a cult title for Maia), as discussed at some length by the late antiquarian writer Macrobius. [21], The Petén region consists of densely forested low-lying limestone plain;[22] a chain of fourteen lakes runs across the central drainage basin of Petén. Such worship was rare during the Classic period,[373] but by the Postclassic the feathered serpent had spread to both the Yucatán Peninsula and the Guatemalan Highlands. The largest known triadic pyramid was built at El Mirador in the Petén Basin; it covers an area six times as large as that covered by Temple IV, the largest pyramid at Tikal. [11], The territory of the Maya covered a third of Mesoamerica,[12] and the Maya were engaged in a dynamic relationship with neighbouring cultures that included the Olmecs, Mixtecs, Teotihuacan, the Aztecs, and others. Grand crabe (malacostracés) à la carapace couverte de tubercules velus, communément appelé araignée de mer. They generally extended horizontally as opposed to the towering Maya pyramids, and often had restricted access. City centres also featured plazas, sacred ballcourts and buildings used for marketplaces and schools. maja ou maïa nom masculin (latin maia) Nom générique de l araignée de mer … Encyclopédie Universelle Salisbury, Koumenalis & Barbara Moffett 2002. [368] The nine lords of the night each governed one of the underworld realms. … [223], The Maya produced a vast array of structures, and have left an extensive architectural legacy. [25], The littoral zone of Soconusco lies to the south of the Sierra Madre de Chiapas,[26] and consists of a narrow coastal plain and the foothills of the Sierra Madre. [354], Maya households interred their dead underneath the floors, with offerings appropriate to the social status of the family. [304][305], The basic unit of Maya logosyllabic text is the glyph block, which transcribes a word or phrase. It has slit windows that marked the movements of Venus. [231], The Maya built their cities with Neolithic technology;[232] they built their structures from both perishable materials and from stone. 100% Organic Cotton Muslin Baby Swaddle Wraps by Mama Maya, a B Corporation. [257] The triadic pyramid remained a popular architectural form for centuries after the first examples were built;[252] it continued in use into the Classic Period, with later examples being found at Uaxactun, Caracol, Seibal, Nakum, Tikal and Palenque. [164], There is some evidence from the Classic period that women provided supporting roles in war, but they did not act as military officers with the exception of those rare ruling queens. Nickelodeon's Not So Valentine's Special. [8] All Mesoamerican cultures used Stone Age technology; after c. 1000 AD copper, silver and gold were worked. Martin and Grube 2000, p. 135. However, most works remained unsigned by their artists. [386] Ocellated turkeys were unsuitable for domestication, but were rounded up in the wild and penned for fattening. [220] Around the 10th century AD, metallurgy arrived in Mesoamerica from South America, and the Maya began to make small objects in gold, silver and copper. [148] A lakam was possibly the only non-elite post-holder in the royal court. The Maya developed a highly complex series of interlocking ritual calendars, and employed mathematics that included one of the earliest instances of the explicit zero in the world. In other cases, loose alliance networks were formed around a dominant city. [381] Contemporary rainforest species composition has significantly higher abundance of species of economic value to ancient Maya in areas that were densely populated in pre-Columbian times,[382] and pollen records in lake sediments suggest that maize, manioc, sunflower seeds, cotton, and other crops have been cultivated in association with deforestation in Mesoamerica since at least 2500 BC. [351], The Maya viewed the cosmos as highly structured. [344] Analysis of the few remaining Postclassic codices has revealed that, at the time of European contact, the Maya had recorded eclipse tables, calendars, and astronomical knowledge that was more accurate at that time than comparable knowledge in Europe. [57] This intervention was led by Siyaj Kʼakʼ ("Born of Fire"), who arrived at Tikal in early 378. [233] Limestone was burned at high temperatures in order to manufacture cement, plaster, and stucco. Sites modified corbel vaulting to allow thinner walls and multiple access doors to temples. Abrams 1994, pp. Maya Angelou (/ ˈ æ n dʒ ə l oʊ / (); born Marguerite Annie Johnson; April 4, 1928 – May 28, 2014) was an American poet, memoirist, and civil rights activist.She published seven autobiographies, three books of essays, several books of poetry, and is credited with a list of plays, movies, and television shows spanning over 50 years. Their houses were generally constructed from perishable materials, and their remains have left little trace in the archaeological record. Pour l’article homophone, voir Maya. This information was used for divination, so Maya astronomy was essentially for astrological purposes. [189], Maya art is essentially the art of the royal court. maia ou moea ♦ Zool. Drew 1999, p. 186. Maya palaces consisted of a platform supporting a multiroom range structure. A sajal would be lord of a second- or third-tier site, answering to an ajaw, who may himself have been subservient to a kalomte. [331], As with any non-repeating calendar, the Maya measured time from a fixed start point. Maya ha recorrido un largo camino desde que conoció a Ed Monstro. [194], The Maya exhibited a preference for the colour green or blue-green, and used the same word for the colours blue and green. The style developed in the Puuc Hills of northwestern Yucatán; during the Terminal Classic it spread beyond this core region across the northern Yucatán Peninsula. [18] The Maya city of Chichen Itza and the distant Toltec capital of Tula had an especially close relationship. [234], The great cities of the Maya civilization were composed of pyramid temples, palaces, ballcourts, sacbeob (causeways), patios and plazas. 1.2m Followers, 1,251 Following, 28 Posts - See Instagram photos and videos from maia (@maiareficco) [292] In reference to the few extant Maya writings, Michael D. Coe stated: [O]ur knowledge of ancient Maya thought must represent only a tiny fraction of the whole picture, for of the thousands of books in which the full extent of their learning and ritual was recorded, only four have survived to modern times (as though all that posterity knew of ourselves were to be based upon three prayer books and 'Pilgrim's Progress'). [356], Archaeologists painstakingly reconstruct these ritual practices and beliefs using several techniques. [328] In a similar way to the tzʼolkin, the named winal would be prefixed by a number (from 0 to 19), in the case of the shorter wayeb period, the prefix numbers ran 0 to 4. [53] The Classic period Maya political landscape has been likened to that of Renaissance Italy or Classical Greece, with multiple city-states engaged in a complex network of alliances and enmities. Wronged by the love affair, Zeus' wife Hera in a jealous rage had transformed Callisto into a bear. Como monstruo. [352] As the Maya civilization developed, the ruling elite codified the Maya world view into religious cults that justified their right to rule. The king of Tikal, Chak Tok Ichʼaak I, died on the same day, suggesting a violent takeover. In the northern Yucatán, individual rule was replaced by a ruling council formed from elite lineages. [245] E-Groups were a particular arrangement of temples that were relatively common in the Maya region;[246] they take their names from Group E at Uaxactun. Commoners included farmers, servants, labourers, and slaves. It faced east across the plaza to three small temples on the far side. [82] During the Late Postclassic, the Yucatán Peninsula was divided into a number of independent provinces that shared a common culture but varied in internal sociopolitical organization. She became pregnant with Hermes. Find out more about what is known. Prestige goods obtained by trade were used both for consumption by the city's ruler, and as luxury gifts to consolidate the loyalty of vassals and allies. There are two levels of this Maya of the world. Visions for the chilan were likely facilitated by consumption of water lilies, which are hallucinogenic in high doses. For the book, see, The elaborately carved wooden Lintel 3 from, Early Classic wooden figurine, it may once have supported a. Maya states did not maintain standing armies; warriors were mustered by local officials who reported back to appointed warleaders. [109] In the first two decades of the 20th century, advances were made in deciphering the Maya calendar, and identifying deities, dates, and religious concepts. The canoe was 2.5 metres (8.2 ft) broad and was powered by 25 rowers. [274], The Río Bec style forms a sub-region of the Chenes style,[273] and also features elements of the Central Petén style, such as prominent roof combs. Szymanski 2013, p. 35. [15] Centuries later, during the 9th century AD, murals at Cacaxtla, another site in the central Mexican highlands, were painted in a Maya style. Sharer and Traxler 2006, p. 29. [131], Classic Maya rule was centred in a royal culture that was displayed in all areas of Classic Maya art. The Maya civilization (/ˈmaɪə/) was a Mesoamerican civilization developed by the Maya peoples, and noted for its logosyllabic script—the most sophisticated and highly developed writing system in pre-Columbian Americas—as well as for its art, architecture, mathematics, calendar, and astronomical system. Miller and Taube 1993, p. 170. [60] Tikal and Calakmul both developed extensive systems of allies and vassals; lesser cities that entered one of these networks gained prestige from their association with the top-tier city, and maintained peaceful relations with other members of the same network. The reading order of text starts at the top left (block A1), continues to the second block in the double-column (B1), then drops down a row and starts again from the left half of the double column (A2), and thus continues in zig-zag fashion. The abandonment of the city was followed by a period of prolonged warfare, disease and natural disasters in the Yucatán Peninsula, which ended only shortly before Spanish contact in 1511. [357] Maya art, architecture, and writing are another resource, and these can be combined with ethnographic sources, including records of Maya religious practices made by the Spanish during the conquest. Maya art was crafted from both perishable and non-perishable materials, and served to link the Maya to their ancestors. Martin & Grube 2000, p. 108. [276] These towers were adorned with deity masks, and were built to impress the viewer, rather than serve any practical function. Incluindo a sua internadora significativa. [54] The largest cities had populations numbering 50,000 to 120,000 and were linked to networks of subsidiary sites.

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